My intuition was right: the two Kram CPUs use the same encryption. Every time there is the same encrypted value at the same address in the two CPUs, it decrypts to the same value.
Not only that but, at a given address, if N bits change in the encrypted value, then N bits change in the decrypted value. This proves that the encryption consists of a bitswap and a xor.
That was the good news. The bad news is that the encryption changes with the address, and there isn't much data to analyze. For most addresses I have only one encrypted-decrypted pair, for a few I have two. There is no way to obtain more than what I have without physical access to the CPU.
Of course, since for now we have to assume that the encryption consists of a free bitswap + free xor, this means that given a single pair it could be decrypted correctly with any of 8! = 8*7*6*5*4*3*2*1 = 40320 different keys: just pick any of the 8! possible permutations of the bits, and then select the 8-bit xor that fixes the result.
What I need to do now is try to figure out the relation between address and key, which isn't obvious at the moment. The total possible keys are 8! * 2^8 = 10321920, which isn't too much. What I plan to do is check how many values are decrypted correctly by each one of them (or better, by a subset of them). If we are lucky, some keys will show a significantly better success rate, meaning they are "good" ones. If we are not lucky, it will mean that bitswap and xor are independently affected by the address.